News Conferences: Tips for Success, Part 2 of 3

This is part 2 of a 3-part series on holding successful news conferences. Covered here: timing your news conference; gate-keeping at the event; press kits; the speakers’ panel; scrums and interviews; equipment; room set-up; and evaluating success.

Today’s post continues my three-part series on smart, high-impact news conferences.

Embargoing your news release
On the morning of the news conference, send out the news release – a one-page, pithy, well-crafted version of the story.  In most cases, you will want to ensure the release is ’embargoed’ until the time of the news conference. That means you’re asking reporters and editors to NOT publish or broadcast the actual story until the news conference itself (for more on the risks and benefits, see Part 3). Otherwise, if the story is already out there on the airwaves, it might not be worth a reporter’s time to cover it; unless the story is huge or the speakers wildly compelling, it may already be considered ‘old news’. To ‘embargo’ a news release, simply write “Embargoed until” with the time and date (e.g., April 3, 2010, 10:00 PST).  In brief, the release should detail highlights of the news you will release, one or more strong quotes from your spokespeople with their titles, and clear contact information.

Gatekeeping at the event
At the news conference itself, be sure to assign a ‘greeter’ at the door, and keep a sign-in sheet for reporters to record their names, titles and outlets. Ask for their cards if you can. This tracking of who attends is so important – it allows you to identify faces to names (again, the relationship-building), track who may be covering the story, and identify reporters who may have a particular interest in similar stories in future. It allows you to screen out uninvited non-journalists – if you have well-organized opponents, they may send people to plant hostile questions or disrupt the event (regrettably, this does happen). Tracking also allows you to identify which outlets did NOT attend. Be sure to follow up those outlets afterward; you may even have another staff member or volunteer doing this during the news conference. And be prepared to re-send the news release to them—many still will not have seen it.

Press kits or backgrounders
For those attending the conference, ensure you have copies of the release and additional background information (speakers bios, maps, graphs, fact sheets, possibly an FAQ, images in digital format etc.) available for them on site. Ideally, provide a CD with high quality, high contrast head shots for each of your speakers.  If you have B-roll or background footage available for them, provide clearly-labelled DVDs; they may be able to use it. A few years ago I worked with the Raincoast Conservation Society on a new study about threatened, unique coastal wolves. They provided high-quality, hard-to-get footage of these rare wolves in action, footage no outlet would have been able to obtain on their own. The story ran on every major TV outlet throughout the day. Pharmaceuticals regularly provide background or “B-Roll” footage of scientists and doctors in white lab coats measuring tests tube and monitoring patients, or gel capsules being filled with medicines in factory conveyer belts. It all looks very impressive and once again, add colour, life and ‘stickiness’ to a story, making it that much more likely to both run, and have an impact on your audiences.

There are a number of issues to consider with your spokespeople:

  • It’s a good idea to have two to three speakers, each one fulfilling a different role (eg. main spokesperson; technical or policy expert; person suffering effects of story, etc). More than three is generally overkill – it will take too long, people will get bored, and your message could get lost or confusing – it can be very challenging to keep more than one or two speakers ‘on-message’. Make sure that each one is a genuine expert on the subject being addressed; don’t put people up there just because they have status in your organization.
  • Ensure your speakers avoid reading notes. Speakers reading from their notes are almost always monotone, stilted and less engaging (and therefore less quotable) than those who speak directly to their audiences.
  • Keep each individual presentation short (1-2 minutes per person).  Practice these in advance.
  • Ideally, keep the overall presentation portion of the news conference to a maximum of 15 minutes, allowing plenty of time for questions.
  • Keep the entire conference to 45 minutes or less, including reporters’ questions.
  • If possible, and depending on your region and your target audiences, it can be extremely useful to have a spokesperson on hand who knows the issue well AND can speak to media outlets in other languages, such as French (in Canada), Spanish (in the US) or Mandarin.

Scrums and one-on-one interviews
If your story is highly newsworthy, be prepared for a news scrum right after the conference, where reporters may throng around your most engaging speakers to seek direct comments and quotes. This can be frenetic if you have also arranged individual interviews; make sure your speakers have rehearsed answering anticipated questions thoroughly. Also be prepared to arrange individual interviews following the conference. Make sure you have at least one staff or volunteer member to handle this; it can get frenetic for a high-profile conference. If your speakers are bilingual, this is where you should line them up with your priority non-English speaking reporters.

Provide a decent sound system or at least a clearing and/or table on which reporters can set microphones and mic stands. You may want to have all speakers trade places to be in front of the microphones, or have one mic for each speaker; if the sound quality if poor, the story may not  run.  If you have the budget for it, equipment you may want to consider renting  includes:

  • Media consol
  • Mixing feed
  • Mics and mic stands for one or more speakers
  • Lights are optional; most camera operators and photographers will bring their own
  • You’ll also want to ensure that there are tables for holding these items.
  • Display table (if you don’t have one already) for posting mounted images or banners.
  • VCR and TV monitor (if you are showing 5 minutes of B-roll footage, for example, and are offering copies of it to the TV outlets that attend)

Room set-up
Make sure there is a sufficiently large clearing in front of the speakers – reporters and camera operators need space to set up their equipment. You might also want to set up 10-20 chairs theatre-style behind and slightly around that cleared area.  It’s a great idea to have a side table or two for:

  • The media sign-in sheet (unless that’s right at the entrance
  • Copies of  backgrounders or press kits (see above)
  • Coffee, tea and water (optional, but always appreciated)

Avoid placing your presentation area against a window (for photo and video). You may want to invest in branded materials, such as a large banner for the backdrop, a sign with your organization’s name and logo for the podium, and/or clear high-quality maps or images off to the side.

Two to three days after the event, review your media sign-in sheet, monitor the coverage you received from attendees and non-attendees alike, and evaluate success of the press conference in relation to the time, energy and money it took to hold. Ask your team, “what did we learn here? How can we do it even better, with less energy and more powerful results, next time?” And please, do the work around documentation. Be sure to go through and update your media list here; don’t rely on peoples’ memories to track who showed up, how they covered it and who might be worth following up with next time for similar stories. This is a vital part of the learning and relationship-building process for any media practitioner.

Upcoming workshop: How to tell more compelling stories using photos

Nothing launches stories into the heats and minds of our audiences like a powerful image. So don’t miss “Behind the Lens of a Veteran Photojournalist: How to Tell More Compelling Stories Using Photos” on Wednesday, April 21st at 10 AM PDT. It’s the latest webinar from the brilliant media and messaging team at Resource Media in Seattle. It’s one hour, it’s free, and offers concrete tips and tools for social change  & environmental organizations. Presenters are Matt Brashears (12 year photojournalist) and Sian Wu (communications guru); click here for details and to register.

News Conferences: Tips for Success, Part 1 of 3

Today’s post is the first of a three-part series on smart, well-organized news conferences that can generate high-impact media stories and build relationships with key reporters. It covers why your organization might want to invest in a news conference, and when not to; timing; the media advisory; and pitching or ‘selling’ the event to key reporters and assignment editors.

Last week, when I was facilitating a media training session for the Center for Progressive Leadership, a couple of the participants wanted more information on news conferences. Now’s as good a time as any! Today’s post is the first of a three-part series on smart, well-organized news conferences that can generate high-impact media stories and build relationships with key reporters.

Why invest in a news conference?
Let me count the ways….. A successful news conference can launch your story into dozens of media outlets – and into the hearts and minds of thousands of potential supporters – in one fell swoop. A news conference driven by a solidly newsworthy story is an event; it can help create the news. Once the ball starts rolling and enough key media are convinced they need to attend, then you have a golden opportunity to shape the message by choosing the right location, backdrops, and spokespeople, as well as preparing solid background materials anticipating tough questions afterward.  As well, by bringing reporters and your people together face to face, a live news conference can take you and your spokespeople one step closer in the ongoing quest of any smart communicator to build relationships with key reporters.

There are a host of considerations and several steps to planning and carrying out a successful news conference.

Risky business
A news conference is the way to go when you have a really, really newsworthy story with clear hard news value.  But be warned: They are risky.  I have always been very conservative about choosing news conferences. Here’s why: First, news conferences are time and energy-intensive to do well. In some cases, they are also very expensive.  And they are a gamble; even if you think your story constitutes “hard news”, you can’t ensure the press will attend.  An unattended press conference is not only demoralizing – it may also send the message that your issue is not worth covering. It can make you, your organization and your cause look weak. And of course, it can end up feeling like a waste of time and money.

Timing is everything
If you can, first try to find out whether any other major stories are taking place on the date on which you plan to hold your news conference.  If you have a relationship with local reporters, one or more may be able to tell you if another event is already scheduled for that day. Of course, there’s no guarantee some more dramatic unexpected story will supercede yours (war breaking out, planes full of world leaders crashing etc), but best to plan where you can.  Generally, it’s best to hold the event at 10:00 am on a Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday for daily print media,, whose daily story meetings are typically around 9:00 am each morning.  TV and radio outlets will have several news segments throughout the day, but the 6:00 evening news typically reaches the widest audience. If you hope your news conference will create follow-up stories, never hold it late in the day or late in the week.  Sometimes weekend press conferences can generate stories in the thin news of Sundays or Mondays – but it is a gamble.

Setting the bait: the media advisory
People (even a few journalists I’ve met) are often confused about the distinction between a media advisory and news release.  So here’s the deal: the media advisory is a short “ teaser”, sent usually 2-3 business days in advance of the actual news conference.  It’s aimed at convincing editors and reporters that there IS a story and they need to be there to cover it – without giving too much away. If they knew the whole story beforehand, why would they come?

Some more notes on the media advisory:

  • Timing: Send the media a media advisory 2-3 business days before the event.
  • Content: Keep it short – one page or less. Include the 5 Ws (who will be there, when and where, what the topic is, why it matters). Include the name, titles and credentials of the speakers.
  • Images: Highlight any photo or image opportunities; this can make the difference between an outlet sending a camera or photographer or not. And you definitely want the cameras. Remember, a picture is worth a thousand words – the more images that accompany the story, the more likely it is to both run, and be remembered by your target audiences.

Distributing the advisory
For stories aimed at a large number of media outlets, it may make sense to invest in a newswire service, like Canadian Newswire or PR Newswire in the U.S.  But even if you do, it is essential that you maintain your own media list with phone numbers and email addresses. That’s because “pitching” the advisory afterward – that is, calling and/or emailing your target reporters and assignment editors to sell the story to them – is an essential part of the process. Ensure that your media list includes key non-English media as well, such as French, Mandarin, Tagalog or Spanish, depending on your key audiences. If you’ve got speakers who are bilingual, note this in your advisory and/or follow-up calls.

Pitching the media advisory
I’ve found that typically one-third of the editors and reporters I’ve contacted afterward say they haven’t seen the media advisory, especially if I didn’t send it directly to their personal email boxes. Following up directly ensures they receive it if they are interested. It also helps gauge the level of media interest in your story; and of course, may help build a relationship with that reporter just a little bit more. If they aren’t interested, you can always ask – politely – why (versus challenging them or getting offended) and use the opportunity to learn.

Facilitation, tricky language and racial justice

What does it mean to be a white facilitator wanting to actively support racial justice, and what Martin Luther King described as “Beloved Community”?  And specifically, how might that intention be reflected in the subtle use of language when facilitating or training? Looking back on two recent experiences as a facilitator working with diverse social justice participants in the U.S., this question has me flummoxed. Let me share two stories (actually, two stories-within-stories).

Tale of the Bus-Stop Crack Addict
Last February I was in the hills of California co-facilitating a leadership training with an incredibly inspiring multi-racial group of participants. We were teaching a skill called ‘meshing’ to help leaders stay centered and resourceful in the face of aggression or hostility from others.  To illustrate, I described an early evening last summer in Vancouver, when my two boys and I were waiting at a bus stop in the downtown east side – one of the lowest-income neighbourhoods in Canada.  A young, powerfully-built man walked up and started hassling my teenaged step-son. The man was high, red-eyed, agitated and extremely aggressive, jerkily swinging his fists as though he were about to strike. Like many of our street homeless, he was probably mentally ill. I stepped up between them, actively ‘meshing’, grounding my energy and  started calmly talking with him while the boys watched nervously. By the time our bus arrived, he’d calmed right down. As we stepped aboard, he clutched my shoulder and said in an almost pleading voice, “I’m not such a bad guy you know.”

Later on, a Vanessa*, a brilliant young African-American participant, shared that while the story was a good illustration of meshing, it also reinforced the stereotype of black men as violent and drug-addicted.

I was startled. Not for one second did it occur to me to mention his race. And, as I’d recounted the tale, I saw the man’s white face, curly reddish hair and blue eyes ringed with red as vividly in my mind’s eye as if he’d been standing right in front of me. To the extent I thought of it at all, I implicitly assumed that everyone saw the same thing.

Was I being naïve? Obtuse? ‘Colour-blind’?  Well, in a way, yes.  I was unaware of what author Drew Weston describes as the unconscious ‘networks of associations’ the story may have triggered for the participants. In Vancouver’s Downtown East Side, a neighbourhood I’d worked on the edge of for 12 years, the vast majority of street homeless and drug-addicted people are white or aboriginal. As a Western Canadian, I simply have not been inundated with the kind of relentless media portrayal of black men as violent criminals that Americans are subjected to every day. As a result, I don’t automatically picture black men when I hear stories about street crime. I picture white men.

My take-away from Vanessa’s feedback? Don’t risk leaving my participants to ‘fill in the blanks’ with their own racial stereotypes or unconscious networks of associations. Recognize that, as another African-American woman  noted in a training this past weekend, “it’s always in the room. Race is always the first thing people notice.”  So name it – use a quick adverb: “white”, “black” (especially in Canada), “African-American”, “woman of colour”,  and so on. In the last few months, mindful of this lesson, I’ve started doing exactly this, usually as a quick aside in the process of sharing longer stories. As part of this effort, I try to interrupt the often unconscious assumption that ‘whiteness’ is normal (and everything else is exotic).

Tale of Two Hunky Candidates
But wait – is this always the way to go? Consider Story Number Two. This past weekend I was facilitating a fantastic group of multi-racial, progressive political and policy leaders in Philadelphia. At one point we were talking about the classic “message box” used in most political campaigns to clarify the central message and differentiate between two candidates. I was recounting an electoral race I’d been involved in where the two candidates were seen by the media as being virtually identical in several ways. “They both rode their bikes everywhere and advocated for sustainable transportation,” I explained. “They were both successful business leaders, middle-upper class, and both were athletic, environmentally progressive, white and good-looking.”

Afterward, Joan*, one of the participants asked if we could speak privately in a break. “Suzanne,” she said, “I’m curious. Why did you mention their race at all? And why did you describe them as ‘good-looking whites’?” There was a lot to unpack in those two simple questions, as we discovered.  First, from her perspective – and she was a white woman married to an African-American – it was klunky and unnecessary of me to mention that they were white at all. Secondly, she felt I was playing into racial bias by implying that white men were generally better-looking. Whoah! How did I imply that?  Who even thinks that? Again, I found myself blind to the automatic assumptions or networks of associations of at least some of my participants might have.

Once gain, I found myself back squarely in the “flummoxed” box.

After I’d explained the crack-addict story that had led me to start noting race, Joan suggested that next time I might consider separating adjectives like “white” and “good-looking” in time and space – maybe slip another adjective in between them – to ensure the people don’t fill-in-the-associations. It’s another idea I’ll add to my growing ‘language toolbox’ when it feels appropriate.

But is the ‘answer’ clear to me? Not at all. It’s an ongoing dance between being skillful on all the levels any facilitator has to track (agenda, timing, participation, group energy levels) while also being mindful of the subtleties of language and other dynamics connected to racism and privilege. There is often no “right” answer in how to frame issues or use language. But that’s the work, isn’t it? As a facilitator, my goal is to help provide the most supportive, safe space possible for participants to learn and collaborate.  As a woman committed to social justice, I see my job as being awake to the dynamics of power and privilege – to be an effective ally in the collective journey toward beloved community. And I am so damned lucky to be surrounded by generous participants like Vanessa and Joan, and so many of my fellow facilitators and trainers, as I stumble along that path.

(* not their real names)

“Managing” social activist staff: two upcoming workshops

Managing” social activists…. Does that sound like an oxymoron, or what!?  Working in the not-for-profit sector for 20 years, I’ve noticed that the biggest messes many leaders face stem from a lack of skill in managing their people. Managing teams is especially tough when both the (often reluctant) managers AND the ‘managees’ are trained, if not fundamentally driven, to question authority and status quo power structures.  Two upcoming workshops – one on the West Coast of B.C., and one in Washington, D.C. – can help.

First, the fabulous  Deena Chochinov, a veteran organizational development consultant (among other skills) is leading a 2-part workshop on Talent Management on May 7th and May 14th in Vancouver, BC. As she explains, “This high-impact skill-building workshop will guide you through the key drivers and steps for creating a motivated, inspired and responsible workforce that will survive and thrive in these challenging times.” See for details.

On the other side of the continent, a workshop in D.C. addresses HR (human resources) and social activism in particular.  The Management Assistance Group is offering a 3-part workshop on Managing Real People, Managing Change, especially for social justice organizations. It’s being offered out of the Center for Community Change in Washington, D.C., starting with a full-day session on May 11th.  See for details.

Facilitation training on the West Coast with Julian Griggs

Master facilitator Julian Griggs is once again offering his widely-acclaimed 5-day intensive training, “The Art and Craft of Facilitation” on spectacular Cortes Island this May 10-14, 2010. Check out Hollyhock for details. This intensive is aimed at “independent facilitators, Executive Directors, managers, project leaders or any participants in collaborative group processes that are looking to enable teams to be effective, and support groups in achieving their full potential.” Julian’s trainings usually sell out – he offers a powerful, transformative approach to facilitation skills-building – so book fast.

Public speaking training with Gail Larsen in Santa Fe and the Pacific Northwest

Gail Larsen, author of Transformational Public Speaking, is one of the most heartfelt and experienced public speaking trainers in the US and Canada. Gail is offering another series of trainings this Spring, starting with her sold-out “Transformational Speaking Intensive” in Santa Fe April 8-11.  She’s got two more with a few slots free still on Whidbey Island May 6 and May 13-16th and another June 17-20th at New York’s Omega Institute.  I’ve done two trainings with Gail to brush up my own skills as both a speaker and trainer, and absolutely love her supportive ‘inside-out’ approach to coaching authentic, powerful speaking.

Structured Decision-Making: Roadmap to Wise Choices?

As a facilitator, I’m always searching for new approaches to help groups plan strategically and make smart decisions.  One approach I’m currently exploring is “structured decision-making”, or SDM (though somehow that sounds faintly obscene when I say it out loud).

Structured decision-making is a systematic process developed for making wise, transparent decisions in the face of complex issues with diverse stakeholders, high stakes and divergent perspectives.

Example: The Holiday Dilemma
Here’s a super-simple example of how SDM might work, from my friend and colleague Trent Berry. He’s the co-founder of Compass Resource Management,  based out of Vancouver. Compass boasts one of the world’s most masterful teams at designing and facilitating structured decision-making processes for resource and environmental issues.

He explains:  “Imagine you and your spouse want to plan a holiday.  You want to go to Mexico.  They want to go to Hawaii.  How do you resolve the difference?  Well, you start by trying to understand why each other prefers one location or the other.  What are you really trying to achieve.  So, you might point out cost, things to do, safety, etc.  Those are your objectives or interests.  Now rather than just arguing about a location, you can discuss the relative merits of each from the perspective of what you each want to achieve.  doing that you may discover that some of your facts are wrong – e.g., cost.  But you’ll also understand how much importance each of you is placing on different things – e.g., cost vs. safety.  And through the process you may understand each other better and you may actually come up with a third option that meets both of your objectives.  Not always –  but sometimes.  Really, structured decision making is similar to what used to be called ‘interest-based negotiation’.  The only way it may differ is there is the discussion goes beyond two private parties and the focus is on not only understanding interests but also doing a better job of really understanding how different options perform across interests. Its a marriage of science and values.”

The Steps to SDM
In practice, SDM processes can often be described in decision trees or other concept maps.  The basic steps follow, in many ways, a really great government policy briefing note. Here are the steps for a “PrOACT (Problem, Objectives and Measures, Alternatives, Consequences, and Trade-offs” SDM framework (originally outlined in the book “Smart Choices”):

  1. Define the problem
  2. Specify the objectives and measures – including getting agreement on “what matters”, and prioritizing information and assessing uncertainty or risk with different kinds of information
  3. Create imaginative alternatives
  4. Identify the consequences for each
  5. Clarify the trade-offs.

Growing interest in SDM
From Alberta to Australia, the wave of interest in this approach is growing. One major application is for complex resource management issues. Imagine a group of environmental activists, First Nations, oil industry proponents and government staff trying to come to some sort of sound, values-based decision-making around large-scale oil exploration over a relatively intact natural ecosystem. How do you design a dialogue process that isn’t about greenwashing or tokenism and doesn’t suck the life force – not to mention the coffers — of all involved for the next decade?  Past experience has shown that lengthy land-use planning approaches and environmental assessments don’t always yield wise results, and especially not in a timely or cost-effective way.

As Berry explains, “environmental assessments all too often look like a long, expensive shopping list of environmental impacts, with no way to prioritize or sort through them. Structured decision-making starts from a place of shared values – because science can tell us about all the options, but it can’t do a thing about setting priorities or assessing the relative risks among them. Only a clear set of values can do that.”

Beyond Resource issues
SDM is also being used with child welfare workers in California, adult protective services in Michigan  and a host of other agencies.  Check out several other case studies on-line, including several at

Training the next generation of progressive political leaders

Training the next generation of progressive political leaders is the focus of the Washington, D.C.-based Center for Progressive Leadership. Their particular focus is on under-represented candidates and leaders, including women, people of colour, and GBLTQ folks, in 5 key US states. I’m thrilled to be on the team of trainers for CPL’s upcoming training in Philadelphia this weekend (April 10-11, 2010), focusing on message development, story-telling, public speaking and mainstream media tools.

Training the next generation of progressive political leaders is the focus of the Washington, D.C.-based Center for Progressive Leadership. Their particular focus is on under-represented candidates and leaders, including women, people of colour, and GBLTQ folks, in 5 key US states.  I’m thrilled to be on the team of trainers for CPL’s upcoming training in Philadelphia this weekend (April 10-11, 2010), focusing on message development, story-telling, public speaking and mainstream media tools.  This will be my first training with CPL, and the second of five intensive weekend retreats for their 54 participants, as part of a year-long fellowship for leaders in Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, friends tell me, is “the quintessential American city” – diverse, blue-collar, crammed with classic diners and home to the Liberty Bell.  I haven’t seen much yet – the training starts tomorrow – but I CAN say Philly has fantastic restaurants, tons of snappy energy and the CPL team is really, really smart. It’s intoxicating to be hanging out with people who regularly refer to “message boxes” and “progressive narratives” in the same breath!

POP everything! Strategic planning in 30 seconds or less

P.O.P. – Purpose, Outcome and Process – is one of the snappiest, most useful planning tools I know. And it’s completely scalable – from planning a 10 minute phone call to organizing a campaign.

One of the simplest, snappiest and most useful planning tools I know is one we teach at Rockwood Leadership Institute.  It’s a sweet little acronym called “P.O.P.” – standing for Purpose, Outcome and Process. Given the state of my memory, I  lunge at anything this easy to remember.  And this fast. Sure, it may take a bit more 30 seconds sometimes, but it’s still pretty snappy and massively effective.

Here’s a snapshot of P.O.P. And really, it’s so straightforward, this is all you need:

  • “Purpose” answers the question “why
  • “Outcome speaks to “what” – the vision of what success will look and feel like when you ‘arrive’
  • “Process” speaks to “how” – the specific steps involved in getting there.

Straight from the Source
The “P.O.P.” model was devised by brilliant leadership consultant (and fellow Rockwood trainer) Leslie Sholl Jaffe and her partner Randall Alford.  As they describe it, “POP is a useful tool for a multitude of the daily activities leaders find themselves faced with: meeting agendas, campaigns, difficult conversations, unplanned calls and conversations… As you can gather from the list, POP is scalable, it can be used for large, long term projects, regular weekly staff meetings, a meeting you attend or a call that comes in that has no agenda, coaching/mentoring sessions…”

Case in point: Workshop Design
Last week I met with a small team of folks designing a workshop within a larger conference for immigrants and refugees.  We started by stepping back and asking: what is the overall purpose of this workshop? Why now? Why here? How can it advance our particular focus on supporting skilled immigrants and refugees in the job market? Then we asked: if this workshop were wildly successful, what would the outcome be? In other words, what does success look like, in concrete terms? Only then did we address the process – the specific format, agenda design, room set-up, breakout size etc.

Cart before the horse…
All too often, action-oriented social justice and not-for-profit leaders jump straight into planning the process of calls, meetings and entire projects – without first nailing down a clear sense of the purpose and outcomes. In practice, it’s vastly more effective to “go slow to go fast”.  Even doing a quick “POP” for simple tasks, I’ve found, can save hours of time, and help ensure that your  creative energies are aligned and vastly more effective from the start.

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